1.4). II. Mass irregularity and imperfections: Another important quality parameter of the yarn is its mass unevenness along its length. Smooth Ring Spun Polyester Raw White Yarn On Paper Cone For Sewing Machine. 1.9. There are two methods employed: Reduction by division. All natural fibres follow a similar basic routine of conversion to spun yarn which includes four major stages although man-made fibres do not require the cleaning which is necessary for natural fibres. The cleaning process may be chemical (wool scouring in water-based emulsion), mechanical (removal of dry impurities from cotton), or a combination of the two, depending on the nature of the impurities. Higher polymer throughput as a result of process speed advance (POY), due to extruder technology and high-speed winding mechanisms, reduced production costs and provided adequate yarn shelf-life. This is necessary with all natural fibres in order to remove the impurities present in the raw fibre before further processing can take place. This early system was prone to polymer decomposition, inhomogeneity and discolouration, and throughput speeds were limited. Opening is accompanied by disentangling. The strength of the wrap yarns was quite similar to that of the ring spun yarns (Fig. They had, therefore, to be subjected to a subsequent draw process to stabilise the yarn within a certain time-frame after spinning. Prior to melt spinning, polymer chips (Fig. Sewing threads are folded as they are required to be uniform in diameter and to have no weak places. These yarns are spun in the coarse to medium count range (higher than 16 tex). Pre- tension to Core material: The pretension is needed to regulate the geometrical position of the filament. Spun yarns are produced by placing a series of individual fibres or filaments together to form a continuous assembly of overlapping fibres, usually bound together by twist. Ceramic applicator for metered spin finish. This involves the use of a drawing frame which performs drafting by a series of rollers rotating at progressively increased speeds. Most of the filament yarn stretching occurs between the points of extrusion and where the filaments, under tension from the subsequent drawdown feed device, are still in their plasticised state. Elongation and breaking strength are two important quality attributes of any spun yarn. In addition to the speed at which yarns are spun, the spinning system also affects yarn properties such as uniformity and strength. The studied factors consist of filament pre‐tension (i.e. 3.22) can be produced by twisting two or more plied yarns together, usually for technical applications. Spun yarns are produced by placing a series of individual fibres or filaments together to form a continuous assembly of overlapping fibres, usually bound together by twist. Relative conversion costs move in favour of the semi-worsted system as yarn linear densities become finer. Fabrics for apparel, for example, require comfort, hand, drape, breathability, easy care, durability/abrasion, esthetics, dye-ability and, of course, tailorability. There are two types of yarns, i.e., spun yarns and filamentous yarns. Do not snag readily 8. Raw White 100 Polyester Spun Yarn Z Twist Ne 40/3 with Ring Spun Technics. If handled carefully, they are mostly used as pile warp. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845696467500019, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845696955500027, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978184569757050009X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845699307500013, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694449500139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009048000031, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845699338500010, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009048000043, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978184569444950005X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081006863000049, Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, 2011, Fibres, yarns and fabrics: fundamental principles for the textile designer, Structure and properties of textile materials, Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Types and properties of fibres and yarns used in weaving, Yarn and thread manufacturing methods for high-performance apparel, Advanced weaving technologies for high-performance fabrics, Yarn structure and properties from different spinning techniques, Statistics for Textile and Apparel Management.