Another dissemination influence may include geographic proximity; for example, geographical proximity may increase the likelihood of university-industry partnerships [85]. How easy it is to get your research out there may vary depending on the research project, how you present it, and … 2002;21:264–73. Am Psychol. 2009 [cited 2020 Aug 10]. She has project managed, led, and evaluated higher education research in the areas of peer learning and… We also analyzed whether dissemination at different levels of government (i.e., local, state, and federal) used unique channels. One study examined the role of researchers themselves in disseminating findings to policymakers and identified individual- and organizational-level facilitators and barriers to the process [31]. Acad Pediatr. 2010;7:S99–107. Interdisciplinary collaboration is a common practice in scientific research [92]. 2012;87:609–26. CAS  Van der Arend J. Bridging the research/policy gap: policy officials’ perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to effective links between academic and policy worlds. Ashcraft, L.E., Quinn, D.A. 2015;12:286–303. PubMed Google Scholar. Two studies recommend positional neutrality as a researcher’s best approach to handling potential ideological differences, suggesting that presenting research findings as simple fact, rather than making specific recommendations for action, may help avoid conflict and also help researchers gain credibility across the ideological spectrum [27, 50]. The Model for Dissemination of Research includes the four key components described by Shannon and Weaver [11, 12] and later McGuire [13, 14] of the research translation process: the source, message, audience, and channel (Fig. A review of obesity-themed policy briefs. Peabody J Educ. McGinty EE, Siddiqi S, Linden S, Horwitz J, Frattaroli S. Improving the use of evidence in public health policy development, enactment and implementation: a multiple-case study. We searched Academic Search Premier, PolicyFile, SocINDEX, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science from January 1980 through December 2019. That said, some researchers have already begun to think beyond the passage of legislation, as evidenced by Zelizer [44] who examined bill co-sponsorship rather than passage. Carroll L, Ali MK, Cuff P, Huffman MD, Kelly BB, Kishore SP, et al. 2014;35:611–30. 2016;14:1–9. 2017;17:223–4. A review of policy dissemination and implementation research funded by the National Institutes of Health, 2007-2014. Available from: https://www.nihr.ac.uk/explore-nihr/funding-programmes/policy-research.htm. She is supporting multiple research teams and internal and external processes for engaged dissemination. The influence of lobbying in the United States also differs from other western countries. Robinson P. Theorizing the influence of media on world politics: models of media influence on foreign policy. This allows researchers to work alongside policymakers to reach their goals in addressing educational needs with evidence-informed policy [80]. J Comp Eff Res. Purtle J, Dodson EA, Nelson K, Meisel ZF, Brownson RC. The current review identified six dissemination strategies and described their reported effectiveness, while the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) Project identified 73 implementation strategies [90]. Purtle J, Lê-Scherban F, Wang XI, Shattuck PT, Proctor EK, Brownson RC. Think who might benefit from using your findings. A common strategy for garnering support (as recommended above) is the use of evidence champions or brokers; these are intermediary individuals or organizations who connect research suppliers (e.g., individual researchers, academic institutions) to research demand (e.g., policymakers) [53]. Health Res Policy Syst. Identify and plan critical time points, consider external influences, and utilise existing opportunities, such as upcoming conferences. Am J Eval. Pacheco J, Maltby E. The role of public opinion—does it influence the diffusion of ACA decisions? Nelson JW, Scammell MK, Altman RG, Webster TF, Ozonoff DM. Urban Institute. Fifth, the majority of studies did not use any theory or framework as a foundation or guide for exploration. 8th ed. Dissemination of Evidence Based Practice and Nursing Research Overview For this module, the strategies related to dissemination of evidence-based practice are reviewed. Studies were eligible for this review if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) occurred in the United States; (2) reported in English; (3) systematically evaluated the impact of research on social policy (this typically excluded studies focusing on policymaker dissemination preferences); (4) discussed domestic social policy (as defined above); and (5) were published in the peer reviewed literature or the grey literature (e.g., think tank research briefs, foundation research publications). We used the Model for Dissemination of Research, as defined above, to see if and how the studies describe and test the channels of dissemination. More advice from the NIHR on knowledge mobilisation and dissemination. Researchers and policymakers in Canada have sought to bridge the research-to-policy gap. The goal of the preliminary conceptual model was to synthesize components of dissemination for studies that evaluate the dissemination of social policy to policymakers. Available from: https://www.politico.eu/article/why-lobbying-in-america-is-different/. Br. PubMed  1). Study 9 CH 18: Dissemination of Research flashcards from Julie D. on StudyBlue. Another common channel was in-person communications such as one-on-one meetings [44] and presentations to stakeholders [51]. Vol. Utilise opportunities: Build partnerships with established networks; use existing conferences and events to exchange knowledge and raise awareness of your work. We examined dissemination based on geographic regions and/or political boundaries (i.e., regions or states). Policy Analysis for What? [38] found that while all styles of brief were considered understandable and credible, opinions on the usefulness of the brief varied by the style of the brief and by the level of policymaker (e.g., legislative staff, legislators, and executive branch administrators). Res Soc Work Pract. We expanded the inquiry for evidence by searching the grey literature through PolicyFile, and included recommendations from experts in the field of dissemination of research evidence to policymakers resulting in 137 recommended publications. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect those of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the National Institutes of Health. 2011;103:306–16. Health Educ Res. The search was performed in February 2016 in PubMed, Ebsco/PsycINFO, Ebsco/CINAHL and Embase. Evid Policy J Res Debate Pract Policy Press. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2002;7:239–44. Kapp JM, Hensel B, Schnoring KT. Dissemination of research findings is an important part of the research process, passing on the benefits to other researchers, professional practitioners and the wider community. The mathematical theory of communication. 2005;33:83–105. Conclusions. 2017;42:309–40. Strengthening partnerships between substance use researchers and policy makers to take advantage of a window of opportunity. As with all research endeavors, timeliness and relevance are paramount. Sorian R, Baugh T. Power of information: closing the gap between research and policy. Individual biases may also present a barrier in research-to-policy translation, as individuals or organizations are empowered to select the “best” research evidence to share with policymakers [29]. Choose from 451 different sets of dissemination flashcards on Quizlet. Researchers’ familiarity with the policy process, the relevance of policy dissemination to individual programs of research, and the expectation of dissemination (from higher institutional or funding bodies) facilitated the research-to-policy exchange, while lack of familiarity with effective dissemination strategies and lack of financial and institutional support for dissemination emerged as primary barriers in the research-to-policy exchange [31]. J Econ Geogr. National Institute for Health Research. volume 15, Article number: 89 (2020) Orton L, Lloyd-Williams F, Taylor-Robinson D, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S. The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: systematic review. One study did not specifically identify the level of government used [46]. Prev Sci. This approach aligns with the system model or knowledge to action approach proposed by Best and Holmes [18]. We also excluded non-research sources, such as editorials, opinion pieces, and narrative stories that contain descriptions of dissemination strategies without systematic evaluation. In order to build lasting working relationships with a target policymaking audience and maximize the relevance of research products for policy work, researchers must first understand the policy process [27, 30, 34]. Finally, the dearth of mixed-methods studies that systematically evaluate the impact of research evidence on domestic social policy (this review identified only 3) presents an opportunity for future work in this field to integrate quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Findings from this study suggest that having relevant research information increases policymakers’ co-sponsorship of proposals by 60% and highlights the importance of research access in the policy process [44]. The researcher needs to be motivated and support from local managers and profe … Third, we were unable to assess the risk of bias for individual studies as current standards note difficulties in assessing quality and bias in qualitative research [88]. Multiple studies offered specific recommendations for message framing, suggesting that the packaging of information is as critical as the information itself [27]. Syntheses of policy-relevant evidence can be useful, particularly when researchers work in partnership with non-governmental organizations to inform the policy process. Purtle et al. 8 REFERENCES Community Engagement Program Translating disparities research to policy: a qualitative study of state mental health policymakers’ perceptions of mental health care disparities report cards. A shared feature of these strategies is the distillation of complex research findings into accessible pieces of relevant information that can then be delivered via multiple avenues. 303 full-text articles were reviewed with 27 meeting inclusion criteria. Ashcraft LE, Asato M, Houtrow AJ, Kavalieratos D, Miller E, Ray KN. Four studies highlighted the importance for early and ongoing engagement with policymakers throughout the research process in order to maximize interest and applicability. 6 KU School of Medicine-Wichita - A Healthy Kansas Starts Here Research Advisory Service. Am J Public Health. For example, some states have full-time legislatures while other states have part-time legislatures. Quantitative measures of health policy implementation determinants and outcomes: a systematic review. These themes align with existing knowledge about policymaker preferences including face-to-face engagement [72, 73], contextual considerations (e.g., timeliness and budget) [2, 72], and existing barriers and facilitators to research evidence use [4, 5]. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: Comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping. After piloting four different styles of policy briefs (on the same research topic) with state-level policymakers, Brownson et al. Champaign: University of Illinois Press; 1963. While models for infrastructure and dissemination interventions may be shared across policy contexts, it may be difficult to directly compare dissemination strategies in one country with dissemination strategies in another country. What funds will you need to deliver your planned dissemination activity? Dissemination, or the distribution of new knowledge gained through research, is essential to the ethical conduct of research. J Mark. Principles of good dissemination Stakeholder engagement: Work out who your primary audience is; engage with them early and keep in touch throughout the project, ideally involving them from the planning of the study to the dissemination of findings. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 10]. What is the effectiveness of these strategies? Evidence-based policymaking: Insights from policy-minded researchers and research-minded policymakers: Routledge; 2011. Purtle J, Lê-Scherban F, Shattuck P, Proctor EK, Brownson RC. [56] suggest that in polarized contexts involving strong ideological beliefs, research may add legitimacy to a particular viewpoint, though as with brokers, that research is likely to be carefully curated to support the desired message. 2018;13. A mathematical theory of communication. As Horizon 2020 is financed by EU citizens, it should benefit to the largest number and the fruits of the research reach society as a whole. Mosley JE, Courtney ME. This gap may indicate a space to use frameworks such as the Model for Dissemination of Research to guide future research. Envisioning a transdisciplinary university. However, it is possible we missed some studies which examine how research influences policy. J Law Med Ethics. 2011;6:e21704. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change. Objectives Identify the key strategies to implementation of evidence-based practice. This should create ‘pull’ for your research i.e. For state- and local-level policymakers, policies may be most effective when based on the evidence-based understanding of local stakeholders, rather than imposed from the federal level without local contextual details [29]. Sorian R, Baugh T. Power of information: closing the gap between research and policy. Yanovitzky I, Weber M. Analysing use of evidence in public policymaking processes: a theory-grounded content analysis methodology. 2015;26:688–95. RCB is supported by the National Cancer Institute (P50CA244431) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U48DP006395). One study piloted multiple styles of policy briefs and found staffers preferred to use and share narrative or story-based briefs while legislators were more likely to use and share statistical, data-based briefs [38]. intellectual property issues. The remaining studies covered the topics of education (n = 4) [39, 43, 53, 54], guns [56], veterans [44], and general social research (n = 3) [31, 32, 48]. 2019;12:199–212. 2013; [cited 2020 Apr 17]. Therefore, while some theoretical depictions appear linear in their presentation; it is important to acknowledge the critical role of systems thinking. 2019;97:1200–32. The second implementation study reported on a field experiment in which state legislators randomly received relevant research about pending policy proposals [44]. A number of cross-cutting strategies appear to enhance the translation of research evidence into policy. Communicating and disseminating research findings to study participants: Formative assessment of participant and researcher expectations and preferences - Volume 4 Issue 3 - Cathy L. Melvin, Jillian Harvey, Tara Pittman, Stephanie Gentilin, Dana Burshell, Teresa Kelechi The 27 included 6 studies using quantitative methods, 18 that employed qualitative methods, and 3 that used a mixed methods approach. Legislators’ sources of behavioral Health research and preferences for dissemination: variations by political party. Polit Res Q. They find that four strategies are most successful supporting the contribution: 1) making findings understandable to policymakers, 2) increasing opportunities for interaction between policymakers and researchers, 3) addressing any structural barriers for research to link with policy like lack of incentives for academics, and lastly, 4) changing the research to make it more relevant to policy issues. Diffusion of Innovations Theory describes the spread and adoption of novel interventions through an “s-curve,” ordered process, and characteristics of the message and audience [16]. Jacobs LA, Ashcraft LE, Sewall CJR, Folb BL, Mair C. Ecologies of juvenile reoffending: a systematic review of risk factors. However, shifting political agendas in the 1980s saw the demand for evidence increase to provide support for social programs [24]; we hoped to capture this increase in evidence use in policy. : ID 2190685. In recent years, social scientists have sought to understand how research may influence policy [1, 2]. Despite our relatively unique government structure, however, many of the effective strategies for dissemination we identified mirror strategies found in other countries [79, 80]. Print materials was the most commonly used channel, including reports (n = 10) [27, 30, 33, 41, 46, 50, 53, 55, 57, 58] and policy briefs (n = 3) [31, 34, 38]. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy. social media, websites, conferences, traditional media, journals. 2003;56:29–40. commissioners, patients, clinicians and charities. The audience included executive branch policymakers [49], administrators (n = 9) [27, 31, 38, 39, 41, 43, 53, 55, 57], and staff [42]. J Public Health Manag Pract JPHMP. Fam Foster Care Century. Implement Sci IS. This guide will introduce the terminology and definitions surrounding research dissemination, as well as provide you with strategies and further resources to aid your dissemination … Additional theoretical contributions for dissemination research come from Social Marketing Theory, which postulates commercial marketing strategies summarized by the four P’s (produce, price, place, and promotion) and the understanding that communication of the message alone will not change behavior [17]. Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res. Health Aff (Millwood). We chose to focus our review on the United States to capture the strengths and challenges of its unique, multi-level policy and political environment. State Legislators’ Support for Behavioral Health Parity Laws: The Influence of Mutable and Fixed Factors at Multiple Levels. 2000;19:236–40. 2019;76:478–96. Eur J Commun. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/political-party. PubMed  2008;14:150–4. Patient Patient Centered Outcomes Res. This finding is surprising in our current digital age, as print materials are necessarily time-bound and rapidly evolving technology has created more channels (e.g., social media, videos) which may be preferred by policymakers. Gilbert N, Terrell P. Dimensions of social welfare policy. This model was shown to be effective for both researchers (in mobilizing) and policymakers (in eliciting requests for research evidence to bolster a policy conversation or debate) [32]. 3, Art. Dean H. Social Policy. Additionally, the tool helps the user allocate resources to achieve the dissemination objectives. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 31]. Early engagement also ensures that research products (e.g., reports, policy briefs, factsheets) will have strategic usefulness for policymakers [30]. Tseng V, Coburn C. Using evidence in the US. Print materials and personal communications were the most commonly used channels to disseminate social policy research to policymakers. Research is the key to understanding human conditions, societal challenges and unlocking the possibilities of technology, which is why research at SDU is made available to as many people as possible. The 3 P‘s of Presenting by Duc Tiep Vu English I for IB&M Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Each country has a distinct and perhaps unique policy context given available resources, political rules and regulations, and priorities. Several cross-cutting strategies (e.g., start early, use evidence “champions,” make research products more timely, relevant, and accessible) were identified that are likely to lead to more effective translate of research evidence into the policy making process in the United States. Studies that focused on a specific level of government had some unique characteristics such as formality and reliance on print materials. 2014;14:2. BMJ. This systematic review aims to synthesize existing evidence about how research has been used to influence social policy and is guided by the following research questions: What are common strategies for using research to influence social policy in the United States? Identify your audience(s) so that you know who you will need to influence to maximise the uptake of your research e.g. Purtle J, Peters R, Kolker J, Diez Roux AV. Studies which focused on the legislative branch examined legislators (n = 12) [27, 32, 36, 38, 44,45,46,47, 50, 52, 53, 58] and staff (n = 3) [32, 34, 36]. A refined compilation of implementation strategies: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project. Contact your funding programme for advice. State and Local Expenditures [Internet]. How to apply for career development support, Collaborations, service and support for your research, Access facilities for early stage research, Access data, patient cohorts or samples support, Participant in research experience survey, Remember to contact your funding programme for guidance on reporting outputs, More advice from the NIHR on knowledge mobilisation and dissemination. We completed reliability checks on 20% of the final studies, selected at random, to ensure accurate data abstraction. These disparate lessons highlight the critical need to integrate knowledge across disciplines. Available from: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tpp/ep/pre-prints/content-ppevidpold1700095. Involve stakeholders in research planning from an early stage to ensure that the evidence produced is grounded, relevant, accessible and useful. A new spin on research translation: the Boston Consensus Conference on Human Biomonitoring. https://www.britannica.com/topic/political-party, https://www.politico.eu/article/why-lobbying-in-america-is-different/, https://oxfordre.com/socialwork/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.001.0001/acrefore-9780199975839-e-610, https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tpp/ep/pre-prints/content-ppevidpold1700095, https://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Default.aspx?tabid=3421, https://www.cato.org/blog/complexity-state-government, https://www.urban.org/policy-centers/cross-center-initiatives/state-and-local-finance-initiative/state-and-local-backgrounders/state-and-local-expenditures, https://www.nihr.ac.uk/explore-nihr/funding-programmes/policy-research.htm, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01046-3. Social Policy: History (1950–1980). Int J Drug Policy. Previous work demonstrates the importance of understanding policymakers’ perceptions and how evidence is disseminated. D’Este P, Guy F, Iammarino S. Shaping the formation of university–industry research collaborations: what type of proximity does really matter? Implement Sci. The search of the literature resulted in 5675 articles and 137 articles recommended by content experts for review with 5225 titles and abstracts screened after duplicates removed. Hopkins M, Wiley KE, Penuel WR, Farrell CC. Ann Epidemiol. 1999;78:15–30. 2016;43:569–78. While there may be fewer decision-makers for each issue on the state level, policymaking is further complicated by the extensive rules and reporting requirements attached to state use of federal funding as well as competing priorities or needs at the local level within each state [83, 84]. Often, policymakers appear unwilling or uninterested in considering the application of evidence to their work [45, 53]; when researchers can demonstrate the value and relevance of their work [58], policymakers may be more likely to engage. Integrating research, practice, and policy: What we see depends on where we stand. While the Model for Dissemination of Research and its origins (i.e., the Mathematical Theory of Communication and Diffusion of Innovations Theory) appear linear in their presentation, Shannon and Weaver [11, 12] and Rogers [16] clearly acknowledge that the dissemination of information is not a linear process and is effected by the environment within which it occurs. Further, 303 full text articles were reviewed with 276 excluded as they did not meet inclusion criteria. of Learning Technologies Part of the Graduate Writing Collegium Webinar Series UNT - Spring Semester 2016 1 2. A conceptual model for dissemination of research to policymakers. doi: 2010;6:145–59. 2017;25:9–14. The qualitative studies mostly employed interviews (n = 10), while others used case studies (n = 6) or focus groups (n = 3). Burstein P. The impact of public opinion on public policy: a review and an agenda. Report No. Dodson EA, Eyler AA, Chalifour S, Wintrode CG. The source includes researchers who generate evidence. Milbank Q. We built on the Model of Dissemination by also considering passive forms of knowledge, such as peer-reviewed literature or research briefs, as potential sources of knowledge and not just as channels in and of themselves. Jamieson M, Bodonyi JM. Format: Produce targeted outputs that are in an appropriate format for the user. title, available registry reference numbers), summary of the research as submitted to the REC and the REC’s opinion. J Health Serv Res Policy. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2190685. The systems model accounts for influence of the environment on a process and accounts for the complexity of the system [18]. The full text of each study was considered for inclusion (LEA and DAQ) with conflicts resolved by consensus. Think about the expertise you have in your team and whether you need additional help with dissemination. The peer-reviewed and grey literature was systematically reviewed to understand common strategies for disseminating social policy research to policymakers in the United States. Several examples across western countries contribute to a stronger nexus between research evidence and the policy-making process. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. Implementation Science Many of the studies included in this review are either case studies or descriptive, making it difficult to determine what, if any, impact the given research had on policy. 2015;349:g7647. 2015;10:21. 2011 [cited 2018 Sep 20]. Use the right language and focus on the possible impact of your research on their practice or daily life. Allen P, Pilar M, Walsh-Baily C, Hooley C, Mazzucca S, Lewis C, et al. Am J Prev Med. 2.Delivery of Health Care – methods. The most common sources of knowledge included research, as in peer-reviewed literature (n = 7) [30, 33, 38, 42, 43, 49, 54], researchers (n = 5) [27, 31, 32, 34, 56], and research broadly defined (n = 5) [36, 39, 47, 48, 55], the government (n = 11) [29, 36, 41,42,43,44, 47, 50, 54, 56, 57], and organizations (n = 7) [33, 36, 46, 52,53,54, 56]. Researchers are encouraged to take the initiative to contact policymakers as early as possible in the research process. CAS  Available from: https://www.urban.org/policy-centers/cross-center-initiatives/state-and-local-finance-initiative/state-and-local-backgrounders/state-and-local-expenditures. In the United States, there is more likely to be a “winner-take-all” process where some advocates (often corporations and trade associations) have disproportionate influence [22].